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KTU mokslininkai: panaudotas padangas galima paversti degalais

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Automobilio padanga, iki tapdama nebenaudotina, nurieda mažiausiai 30 tūkstančių kilometrų. Tačiau net ir po to jos gyvenimas nesibaigia – pasak ekspertų, iš vienos automobilio padangos, ją perdirbus, galima gauti iki 800 gramų benzino sudėtį atitinkančio produkto. Panaudotų padangų vertimas kuru – vienas iš sprendimų, padedančių atsikratyti šių aplinkai pavojingų atliekų.
„Padangos gamyboje naudojamos įvairios medžiagos (gamtinė ir sintetinė guma, tekstilė, įvairūs kiti priedai), kurias veikiant aukštoje temperatūroje ir sudarius tinkamas sąlygas gaunamas skystasis produktas, kurį, po vėlesnio apdorojimo, galima naudoti kaip kurą“, – pasakoja Arūnas Jonušas, Kauno technologijos universiteto (KTU) tyrėjas, neseniai šia tema apsiginęs cheminės technologijos mokslų srities daktaro disertaciją.
Lakieji junginiai į aplinką nepatenka
Europoje kasmet prisikaupia apie 3,2 milijonai tonų panaudotų padangų, apie 2,5 milijonai tonų – perdirbama. JAV kasmet susidaro apie 6 milijonai panaudotų padangų, iš jų apie 53 proc. panaudojamos kurui.
Lietuvoje padangas kurui naudoja tik AB „Akmenės cementas“ – įmonė skelbia per metus utilizuojanti apie 9 tūkstančius tonų padangų. Tuo tarpu į Lietuvą jų kasmet atkeliauja apie 15 tūkstančių tonų. Ir, nors panaudotas padangas priima didelių gabaritų atliekų aikštelės, dalis senų padangų vis tiek nusėda konteineriuose, pamiškėse ir pakelėse kaip šiukšlės.
„Mūsų laboratorijose išbandyto padangų konversijos į kurą proceso metu padangos ne deginamos, o termolizinamos, tiesioginio kontakto su ugnimi nėra. Tinkamai sureguliavus šį procesą, pavojingi aplinkai lakieji junginiai į orą nepatenka“, – teigia A. Jonušas.
Tiesa, pasak KTU tyrėjo, dar teks palaukti, kol panaudotas padangas versti automobiliniu benzinu ar dyzelinu apsimokės komerciškai.
Veikia kitose šalyse, bet ne Lietuvoje
„Padangų sudėtyje yra ir sieros junginių, jie konversijos metu pereina į skystąjį produktą. Dėl aplinkosauginių reikalavimų šių junginių kiekis naftos produktuose yra griežtai normuojamas (automobiliniuose degaluose jų negali būti daugiau kaip 10 mg/kg). Todėl didžiausias iššūkis yra kuro išvalymas nuo sieros junginių. Mūsų pasiūlytas metodas kokybei gerinti, nors ir įprastas naftos pramonėje, kuro iš padangų gamyboje yra mažai tyrinėtas“, – aiškina A. Jonušas.
Tyrimus savo daktaro disertacijai jaunasis mokslininkas atliko KTU Cheminės technologijos fakulteto Naftos ir alternatyviųjų energijos šaltinių technologijos laboratorijoje. Be įvairios pažangios analitinės aparatūros, laboratorija turi ir KTU docento dr. Lino Mikniaus sukurtą hidrinimo reaktorių, kuris naudojamas aplinkai pavojingų sieros junginių šalinimui.
Pasak A. Jonušo, nors tyrimai panašia kryptimi vyksta visame pasaulyje, tiek Europoje, tiek Azijoje ir Amerikoje veikia gamyklos, perdirbančios padangas į kurą, Lietuvoje kol kas tokia galimybė išsamiai nesvarstoma.
Šešių padangų užtektų kelionei Kaunas-Vilnius
Pasak mokslininko, vidutinė lengvųjų automobilių padangos masė neviršija 6 kilogramų. Pašalinus metalo konstrukcijas iš naudotos padangos, jos masė sumažėja apie 25 proc. Iš šio, tinkamo kuro gamybai kiekio, galima gauti iki 1,8 kg pirminio skystojo produkto, kuris savo savybėmis artimas krosnių kurui. Iš vienos padangos galima išgauti iki 0,76 kg benzino sudėtį atitinkančio arba iki 0,82 kg dyzelino sudėtį atitinkančio produkto, t. y kiekvienu atveju apie 1 litrą automobilinių degalų. Su taupiai degalus naudojančiu automobiliu, šešių padangų užtektų kelionei iš Kauno į Vilnių.
„Iš padangų gaunamas skystasis produktas po papildomo apdorojimo gali būti naudojamas kaip kuras arba kaip komponentas ruošiant prekinius degalus. Iš jo galima išskirti ir automobilinio kuro frakcijas, tačiau viskas atsiremia į ekonominius skaičiavimus“, – aiškina A. Jonušas.
Pasak jaunojo mokslininko, kol kas toks produktas rinkai būtų per brangus, tačiau, jei pabrangtų nafta, apie jo gamybą komerciniams tikslams jau būtų galima galvoti.
Kuru galima versti ir plastiką

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